1. problems in the process of chemical fertilizer in China
1.1 structure of fertilizer is not reasonable
In the application of fertilizers in China, nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium imbalance, heavy light light organic and inorganic nitrogen and phosphorus fertilizer and potassium is widespread. At present, many farmers experience fertilizer, there were severe blindness and randomness, it increases the cost of agricultural production, reduce crop yields, and affecting the quality of agricultural products, directly undermining the competitiveness of agricultural markets.
1.2 methods of fertilization are not scientific
Most farmers not understand soil nutrient of changes, long-term used habits fertilization mode, often focused on effects of Shi into, rarely for dressing, this not only reduced has fertilizer utilization, and will makes crop growth late appeared off fertilizer phenomenon, effect crop of production; species fertilizer not points, and fertilization depth had shallow is fertilizer utilization low of a important reasons, most farmers in to crop dressing Shi still used applicator, very easy caused fertilizer of volatile and got lost. Not reasonable application fertilizer caused has soil nutrient serious imbalance, and soil harden, and arable land output capacity and disaster capacity obviously declined, excess application fertilizer over soil of keep capacity Shi, makes nitrogen, and p, nutrient large into water, caused water nutrition of, caused fertilizer on surface water of non-points source pollution, and caused groundwater nitrate accumulated, on ecological environment caused serious of negative effect, serious endanger agricultural and whole economy of sustainable development.
1.3 trace element fertilizers did not receive the attention it deserves
Because of long-term trace elements in the soil without replacement, its content is not able to meet the needs of the growth of crops, according to "minimum nutrients theory", even if nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium applied a reasonable proportion may also affect crop yields.
1.4 scientific fertilization rate is low
Effect of fertilizer with crop types, soil types, climatic conditions, cultivation and application of fertilizer varieties and technologies and other factors vary, due to the lack of technology promotion, scientific fertilization technology was not enough, part of the farmers ' awareness of science and technology, resulting in low rates of fertilization technology in place.
2. the effect of excessive application of fertilizers on agricultural ecological environment
Excessive application of fertilizers could reduce crop productivity, crop, just like people, eating too much food is not conducive to growth, but not conducive to health. Excessive fertilization on crop damage results there are two: one is prone to lodging, lodging in the event of, will definitely lead to food production; the other is prone to pests and diseases, too much fertilizer, crop disease and insect weakening, vulnerability to infection of diseases and pests, and pesticide use increased eradication of pests and diseases, a direct threat to food security. In addition, the excessive use of fertilizers also exacerbate environmental pollution, excessive application of fertilizer when the amount exceeds the retention capacity of the soil, it will flow into the surrounding water, form caused by agricultural non-point source pollution, eutrophication, caused algae to breed, and damage to the water environment. According to statistics, China caused by irrational fertilization each year more than 10 million tons of nitrogen loss in farmland in addition to direct economic losses of about 30 billion yuan. Excess fertilizers seeps within 20 meters of shallow groundwater, groundwater nitrate levels increase. Third aspects of against is waste large shortage of resources, if can put waste off of fertilizer save down, on will ease China of energy shortage status, only in 2004, China fertilizer production consumption has about 100 million tons standard coal, over national energy consumption share of 5%, also, China fertilizer production annual consumption of high grade p ore over has 100 million tons, and p ore has included land resources department 2010 Hou shortage resources of column; fertilizer production also consumption has China 72% of sulfur resources.
3. preventive measures
Agricultural food production in China, mainly relying on the substantial input of fertilizers. 80 's of last century the contribution rate of chemical fertilizer on crop yield 50%, but in the 90 's and the beginning of this century, fertilizer continued to grow rapidly, while food production is stagnant, increases in grain production costs, yield decline in fertilizer, on the agricultural ecological environment problems caused by unreasonable application of chemical fertilizer is becoming serious. This mainly due to the consequences of agricultural production in our country for a long time only with plenty of inputs such as fertilizers to improve crop growth and soil environment, rather than chemical fertilizers, especially the potential hazards of chemical fertilizers on the environment. Therefore, based on long-term fertilizer experiment platform, clarify the chemical fertilizers for crop production evolution, soil quality and environmental effects of long-term application of fertilizers, as well as in the practice and promotion of agricultural production is the trend of China's agricultural yield high quality, resource efficiency and environmental health of modern agriculture in important ways.
3.1 balance fertilization technology popularization and application
Balance fertilization, is improve crop yields, and improved crop quality, and reduced production cost, and reduced fertilizer pollution, and maintained agricultural sustainable development of important measures; is according to crop needed fertilizer law, and soil for fertilizer characteristics and fertilizer effect, in application organic fertilizer of based Shang, reasonable determine nitrogen, and p, and potassium and in the, and trace elements of suitable dosage and proportion, and used corresponding science application method of fertilization technology. Scientific and rational use of fertilizers, combat its pollution is an important part of rural ecological environment protection, is an important measure for improving the rural ecological environment quality.
3.2 strengthening the policy guidance
Strengthening macro-control on chemical fertilizer production and marketing and policy support on the one hand, on the other hand is standardizing the market order, and create a favorable external environment for the fertilizer business. According to the Government-led, research-based, extended to ties, principles for the enterprises as the mainstay, farmers, through the effective co-ordination of all aspects and interactions to promote County agriculture fertilizer system toward enterprise benefits, farmers are affordable, good protection of soil environment and harmonious development goals.
3.3 efforts to increase investment in agriculture and agricultural technology extension
Agricultural competent sector to play its administrative coordination role, increased agricultural of input and agricultural technology promotion efforts put agricultural experts, and agricultural three station, and production enterprise, and circulation link, parties advantage resources be integration, and give support, established a long-term of agricultural technology promotion run system, and increased funding input, full play agricultural personnel of functions role, incentive fertilizer production enterprise of social sense, universal soil fertilizer knowledge. To promote fertilizer use is not fair use on rural ecological environment and human-induced hazards, to enable the broad masses of farmers set up the agricultural environmental protection awareness, to comply faithfully with the agricultural sustainable development strategy principle to stop the momentum of the rural ecological environment deteriorating quality. And, enhance the scientific guiding farmers to use fertilizers, according to different crop features rational distribution of fertilizers, chemical fertilizers on the environment pollution. Meanwhile, to promote chemical fertilizer deep application technology and balanced fertilization technology, disseminating effective formula fertilization by soil testing techniques. Depending on the soil properties of different, different crops and different nutritional needs at different growth stages, rational fertilizer varieties and application of different fertilizers to minimize fertilizer losses, improving fertilizer use efficiency, and research and development of organic fertilizer, proportion of application of organic fertilizer, to soil improvement purposes.
4. concluding remarks
In today's world, people facing a rapidly growing population and limited land resources, to really be able to provide enough food, and make the already fragile environment, is the great challenge faced by agricultural workers, we should make use of fertilizers, production and application of high quality and efficiency of chemical fertilizer, and vigorously promote scientific and rational fertilization technique. Agricultural eco-environment is essential for agricultural development, agricultural ecological environment will have a direct bearing on agricultural development, human health and development of the national economy as a whole. For the sustainable development of human society, in order to create a new Socialist countryside, we should protect the agro-ecological environment and to the virtuous cycle of development.